We isolated and propagated neural stem cells from the exposed brain tissue of the patients with open brain trauma, and then implanted neural stem cells with MRI-guided stereotactic device for the patients. Within 2-years follow-ups, the patients were investigated for functional recovery. Contrast to the case control group, implantation of neural stem cells was associated with a significant improvement in patient's neurological function. Investigations of stem cell therapy have required analysis of the fate and migration of implanted neural stem cells. Here, We demonstrate the feasibility of labeling human neural stem cells and retinal stem cells with nanoparticle and tracking of implanted cells in monkey and human central nervous system (CNS). This data demonstrates the possibility of stem cell therapy in CNS and collectively provide necessary foundation for overcoming challenges to the enhancement of translational regenerative medicine of brain and optic nerve injury.